Dr. Carlos Chacon

COVID-19 is aerosolized during operations such as endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, pneumoperitoneum evacuation, and aspiration of bodily fluids. Because these treatments are classed as aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMPs), healthcare personnel must wear N95 masks and eye protection.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develops, surgical treatment must be meticulously planned and carried out to reduce infection risks.

Surgical operations should be guided by competent medical judgment, the availability of resources, and the general state of the patient. This necessitates daily, data-driven case triage.

Anesthesia practitioners must also be meticulous about hand washing after each case and adhere to stringent environmental cleaning and disinfection practices in and around the anaesthesia workstation. All old airway equipment should be disposed of in a double-zip-locked plastic bag for appropriate cleaning and disinfection.

Furthermore, surgeons and other employees who are not necessary for intubation should stay outside the operating room until the anaesthetic induction and intubation procedures are finished. This will reduce exposure to COVID-19 droplets by healthcare professionals who are not actively participating in intubation.

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent reason for hospitalization and substantially contribute to patient morbidity and death. These infections are more frequent than urinary tract infections and account for around 17% of all healthcare-associated illnesses (UTIs).

SSI prevention requires a comprehensive strategy for infection control. This involves avoiding infection in the surgical ward, operating room, and recovery area.

Microorganisms in the surgical wound usually cause SSIs, which may be passed on to other patients, employees, or the environment. Effective surgical infection prevention requires the redesign of systems and the optimization of evidence-based care practices.

Infections are the most common cause of sickness and death. They may develop in any body region and are mainly caused by microorganisms that enter the body, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most prevalent and serious illnesses in the medical field. SSIs occur in 2-5% of surgical patients, resulting in 7-11 additional days in the hospital and 2-11 times the mortality of non-surgically infected patients [4, 7, 11].

Infection-control measures used before, during, and after surgery reduce the occurrence of SSIs. Among them are proper organ function support, skin preparation, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and wound care.

It is crucial to reduce the disposal of contaminated disposables to reduce the effect of COVID-19 during surgery. This implies that all disposables, such as masks, eye protection, and double non-sterile gloves, must be destroyed correctly after use.

Furthermore, contaminated surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected regularly to reduce the potential for COVID-19 transmission. Furthermore, infected equipment should be removed as quickly as possible from the operation room.

Furthermore, if a patient has been identified with COVID-19, surgical treatments should be postponed before being conducted again. This will protect both patients and healthcare personnel from unwanted exposure.

Infections during surgery are a serious issue that results in patient morbidity, death, and extended hospital stays. They represent a considerable healthcare expense to the health-care system and the community.

Despite strong data supporting the efficacy of infection-control procedures, many healthcare institutions fail to put them into everyday practice. Furthermore, best practice information is often missing, and there is a significant gap between best practice and clinical practice.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that healthcare workers use engineering controls to protect themselves from infected patients, such as physical barriers or partitions in triage areas to guide patients, curtains separating patients in semi-private rooms, and airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) that provide negative pressure ventilation with at least six air exchanges per hour. Using these engineering control procedures minimizes the danger of COVID-19 transmission among healthcare staff and protects them from exposure to infected patients after surgery.

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